The process of writing in shorthand is called stenography, from the Greek stenos (narrow) and graphein (to write).
It has also been called brachygraphy, from Greek brachys (short) and tachygraphy, from Greek tachys (swift, speedy), depending on whether compression or speed of writing is the goal. A typical shorthand system provides symbols or abbreviations for words and common phrases, which can allow someone well-trained in the system to write as quickly as people speak.
In order to have a less complex writing system, a syllabic shorthand script was sometimes used.
After the decline of the Roman Empire, the Tironian notes were no longer used to transcribe speeches, though they were still known and taught, particularly during the Carolingian Renaissance.
Pitman script in English and Rishi Pranali in Hindi are the prevalent ones and practised by aspirants.
Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language.
The earliest known indication of shorthand systems is from the Parthenon in Ancient Greece, where a mid-4th century BC marble slab was found.
This shows a writing system primarily based on vowels, using certain modifications to indicate consonants.In 1588 Timothy Bright published his Characterie; An Arte of Shorte, Swifte and Secrete Writing by Character which introduced a system with 500 arbitrary symbols each representing one word.Bright's book was followed by a number of others, including Peter Bales' The Writing Schoolemaster in 1590, John Willis's Art of Stenography in 1602, Edmond Willis's An abbreviation of writing by character in 1618, and Thomas Shelton's Short Writing in 1626 (later re-issued as Tachygraphy).In imperial China, clerks used an abbreviated, highly cursive form of Chinese characters to record court proceedings and criminal confessions.These records were used to create more formal transcripts.Abbreviation methods are alphabet-based and use different abbreviating approaches.