From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations.The Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of "computer" in the "1640s, [meaning] "one who calculates,"; this is an "... The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean "calculating machine" (of any type) is from 1897." The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the "modern use" of the term, to mean "programmable digital electronic computer" dates from "...
Peripheral devices include input devices (keyboards, mice, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screens, printers, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (e.g., the 2000s-era touchscreen).
Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.
The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick.
Later record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi (clay spheres, cones, etc.) which represented counts of items, probably livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers.
Since then, many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented.
In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, and markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money.
1945 under this name; [in a] theoretical [sense] from 1937, as Turing machine".
Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-one correspondence with fingers.
The abacus was initially used for arithmetic tasks.
The Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC.
The sector, a calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry, multiplication and division, and for various functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in the late 16th century and found application in gunnery, surveying and navigation.